We only use the following materials for all of our initial piercing procedures:
- ASTM F-136 6al-4v Implant Grade titanium
- ASTM F-1295 Implant Grade titanium
- Solid 14kt (585) yellow/white/rose gold
- Solid 18kt (750) yellow/white/rose gold
- Borosilicate (“pyrex”) glass
The conductivity of titanium is 1.76 106 S/m. Although titanium is a much better conductor than other biological tissues such as bone and muscle (conductivities 1.70-1.72 10-1 S/m and 1.50-6.00 10-1 S/m, respectively), the overall conductivity when compared to agood conductor such as copper (conductivity 58.5 106 S/m) is low.14-16
14. Gabriel S, Lau RW, Gabriel C. The dielectric properties of biological
tissues: II. Measurements in the frequency range 10 Hz to
20 GHz. Phys Med Biol. 1996;41(11):2251-2269.
15. Hasgall PA, Di Gennaro F, Baumgartner C, et al. IT’IS Database
for thermal and electromagnetic parameters of biological tissues.
2015. Version 3.0. doi:10.13099/VIP21000-03.
16. Kutz M (2015), Mechanical Engineers’ Handbook, Materials and
Engineering Mechanics. 4th ed. Wiley, UK:242